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Modellieren von Kleinplastiken aus Ton. Memoirs by Henry Harris Morris. However, there are different ways of identifying long vowels:. Even though German does not have phonemic consonant length , there are many instances of doubled or even tripled consonants in the spelling. A single consonant following a checked vowel is doubled if another vowel follows, for instance i mm er 'always', la ss en 'let'. These consonants are analyzed as ambisyllabic because they constitute not only the syllable onset of the second syllable but also the syllable coda of the first syllable, which must not be empty because the syllable nucleus is a checked vowel.
Even though German does not have phonemic consonant length, long consonants can occur in composite words when the first part ends in the same consonant the second part starts with, e. Composite words can also have tripled letters. While this is usually a sign that the consonant is actually spoken long, it does not affect the pronunciation per se: the fff in Sauerstoffflasche 'oxygen bottle', composed of Sauerstoff 'oxygen' and Flasche 'bottle' is exactly as long as the ff in Schaffell.
According to the spelling before , the three consonants would be shortened before vowels, but retained before consonants and in hyphenation, so the word Schifffahrt 'navigation, shipping', composed of Schiff 'ship' and Fahrt 'drive, trip, tour' was then written Schiffahrt , whereas Sauerstoffflasche already had a triple fff. Mussspiel 'compulsory round' in certain card games, composed of muss 'must' and Spiel 'game'.
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For some common affixes however, like -graphie or Photo- , it is allowed to use -grafie or Foto- instead. For some words for which the Germanized form was common even before the reform of , the foreign version is no longer allowed. However, certain older spellings occasionally remain, mostly for decorative reasons, such as Circus instead of Zirkus. Alexander and Xanthippe. Some exceptions occur such as Hexe witch , Nixe mermaid , Axt axe and Xanten. It used to be more common in earlier centuries, and traces of this earlier usage persist in proper names.
In loan words from the French language , spelling and accents are usually preserved. Thus, German typewriters and computer keyboards offer two dead keys : one for the acute and grave accents and one for circumflex. In one curious instance, the word Ski meaning as in English is pronounced as if it were Schi all over the German-speaking areas reflecting its pronunciation in its source language Norwegian , but only written that way in Austria.
This section lists German letters and letter combinations, and how to pronounce them transliterated into the International Phonetic Alphabet.
This is the pronunciation of Standard German. Note that the pronunciation of standard German varies slightly from region to region. In fact, it is possible to tell where most German speakers come from by their accent in standard German not to be confused with the different German dialects. Double consonants are pronounced as single consonants, except in compound words.
Consonants are sometimes doubled in writing to indicate the preceding vowel is to be pronounced as a short vowel. Most one-syllable words that end in a single consonant are pronounced with long vowels, but there are some exceptions such as an , das , es , in , mit , and von.
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The e in the ending -en is often silent, as in bitten "to ask, request". Long vowels are generally pronounced with greater tenseness than short vowels. The oldest known German texts date back to the 8th century. They were written mainly in monasteries in different local dialects of Old High German. After the Carolingian Renaissance , however, during the reigns of the Ottonian and Salian dynasties in the 10th century and 11th century, German was rarely written, the literary language being almost exclusively Latin.
Notker the German is a notable exception in his period: not only are his German compositions of high stylistic value, but his orthography is also the first to follow a strictly coherent system. Significant production of German texts only resumed during the reign of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in the High Middle Ages. Around the year , there was a tendency towards a standardized Middle High German language and spelling for the first time, based on the Franconian - Swabian language of the Hohenstaufen court.
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However, that language was used only in the epic poetry and minnesang lyric of the knight culture. These early tendencies of standardization ceased in the interregnum after the death of the last Hohenstaufen king in By the 16th century, a new interregional standard developed on the basis of the East Central German and Austro-Bavarian varieties.
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This was influenced by several factors:. Midth century Counter-Reformation reintroduced Catholicism to Austria and Bavaria, prompting a rejection of the Lutheran language. Instead, a specific southern interregional language was used, based on the language of the Habsburg chancellery. In the early 18th century, the Lutheran standard was also introduced in the southern states and countries, Austria, Bavaria and Switzerland, due to the influence of northern German writers, grammarians such as Johann Christoph Gottsched or language cultivation societies such as the Fruitbearing Society.
Though, by the midth century, one norm was generally established, there was no institutionalized standardization. Only with the introduction of compulsory education in late 18th and early 19th century was the spelling further standardized, though at first independently in each state because of the political fragmentation of Germany. Only the foundation of the German Empire in allowed for further standardization. In the same year, the Duden was declared to be authoritative in Prussia.
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